Black couple. Image credit

Black couple. Image credit

ZIMSEC O Level Combined Science Notes:Contraception:Ways to prevent pregnancy

How it works

  • Can be done in both men and women
  • In men it is known as a vasectomy
    • Sperm duct is cut and tied
    • During sexual intercourse ejaculated fluid contains no sperm
  • In Women there are two types of sterilisation:
    1. Tubal Ligation-tubes from the ovary are cut and tied to prevent ova from reaching the sperm
    2. Tubal Occlusion-clips are clamped on to the tubes to prevent ova from reaching sperm


  • 99.9% for vasectomy
  • 99.4-99.8% female sterilisation


  • It’s permanent and effective
  • Safe and simple operation
  • Vasectomy is usually an outpatients procedure
  • Female sterilisation is done using a local anaesthetic making it easy and less risky
  • There is no effect on sexual desire/performance
  • No effect on the menstrual cycle


  • Permanent method/ not reversible
  • There are risks associated with operations
  • Vasectomy is not effective immediately

Side effects

  • Can result in psychological trauma if one has a change of heart.

To access more topics go to the Combined Science Notes page

Quick NetOne, Telecel, Africom, And Econet Airtime Recharge

If anything goes wrong, chat with us using the chat feature at the bottom right of this screen