ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes:Agriculture:Farming types in Africa: Commercial farming in Zimbabwe
- Land– ranges from 500 to 100 000 ha.
- Rainfall– water for irrigation comes from rivers, dams, lakes or aquifers.
- Capital– comes from banks or other farmers.
- Labour– this comes from the farmers himself, skilled and semi-skilled workers from the population.
- Machinery– tractors, disc harrows, ploughs, seed drills, cultivators, lorries, spray aircraft, combine harvestors, graders are used.
- Agro-chemicals– insecticides, herbicides, vaccines, fertilizers.
- Hybrid seeds – are obtained from research stations and production farms.
- Breeding stock– from other farmers or imported.
- Land preparation- tree felling is done using bulldozers, caterpillars and ripper saws. Ploughing by tractors, basal dressing of fertilisers and stalk burning are also done.
- Planting- using seed drills or by hand for tobacco.
- Weeding- is done by hand of hired labour.
- Spraying- using backpacks or by aircraft, hired labour.
- Harvesting- combine harvesters for cereals or cultivators for potatoes are used.
- Transporting- by tractor or lorries or rail or air for flowers.
- Storage- use of barns.
- Processing, grading and packing- for tea, coffee, tobacco and cotton.
- Marketing- local and abroad.
- Food crops- maize, groundnuts, rice, millet, sorghum, wheat, potatoes, beans, peas, bananas,oranges, nartjees, apples, peaches, vegetables.
- Industrial crops- tobacco, cotton, oil seeds, sunflower, soyabeans, sugar, rubber, palm oil.
- Beverages- tea, coffee, vines.
- Meat- fresh, frozen, dried or slated.
- Milk- fresh, pasteurized, powdered, cheese, yoghurts, flavoured milk.
- Skins and hides- for shoes, belts, bags, leather cases.
- Bones, horns and hooves- for glue, buttons, enamel, pet foods.
- Manure- for feeding crops.
- Capital- for reinvestment, for labour.
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