Commercial Farm in Zimbabwe.

ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes:Agriculture:Farming types in Africa: Commercial farming in Zimbabwe


  • Land– ranges from 500 to 100 000 ha.
  • Rainfall– water for irrigation comes from rivers, dams, lakes or aquifers.
  • Capital– comes from banks or other farmers.
  • Labour– this comes from the farmers himself, skilled and semi-skilled workers from the population.
  • Machinery– tractors, disc harrows, ploughs, seed drills, cultivators, lorries, spray aircraft, combine harvestors, graders are used.
  • Agro-chemicals– insecticides, herbicides, vaccines, fertilizers.
  • Hybrid seeds – are obtained from research stations and production farms.
  • Breeding stock– from other farmers or imported.


  • Land preparation- tree felling is done using bulldozers, caterpillars and ripper saws. Ploughing by tractors, basal dressing of fertilisers and stalk burning are also done.
  • Planting- using seed drills or by hand for tobacco.
  • Weeding- is done by hand of hired labour.
  • Spraying- using backpacks or by aircraft, hired labour.
  • Harvesting- combine harvesters for cereals or cultivators for potatoes are used.
  • Transporting- by tractor or lorries or rail or air for flowers.
  • Storage- use of barns.
  • Processing, grading and packing- for tea, coffee, tobacco and cotton.
  • Marketing- local and abroad.


  • Food crops- maize, groundnuts, rice, millet, sorghum, wheat, potatoes, beans, peas, bananas,oranges, nartjees, apples, peaches, vegetables.
  • Industrial crops- tobacco, cotton, oil seeds, sunflower, soyabeans, sugar, rubber, palm oil.
  • Beverages- tea, coffee, vines.
  • Meat- fresh, frozen, dried or slated.
  • Milk- fresh, pasteurized, powdered, cheese, yoghurts, flavoured milk.
  • Skins and hides- for shoes, belts, bags, leather cases.
  • Bones, horns and hooves- for glue, buttons, enamel, pet foods.
  • Manure- for feeding crops.
  • Capital- for reinvestment, for labour.

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