January 2023

Zvindori/Zvirevo zvisina zviito (copulatives)

By |2022-09-15T12:45:28+02:00January 24th, 2023|O Level Shona Notes|

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Chindori (Copulative)

Zvinogoneka muChiShona kuti munhu ataure chirevo chakazara asingashandise chiito. Izvi zvinogoneka tichishandisa mavara anonzi zvindori. Vamwe vanamuzvinafundo weShona vanodaidza mavara aya kuti zviwedzera zvezvirevo zvisina zviito pachirungu mavara aya ose anonzi macopulatives. 

Mhando dzezvindori

1. Chiwedzera /ndi-/ chinogona kushandiswa kuvaka zvindori semienzaniso inotevera:

a) Kushandura mazita ari mumupanda 1a, 2a ne […]

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Madonzo echiito (moods of the verb)

By |2022-09-15T12:45:27+02:00January 24th, 2023|O Level Shona Notes|

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Madonzo echiito (moods of the verb)

Chiito chimwe chete chinogona kureva zvakasiyana zvichienda nekushandiswa kwachinenge chaitwa. Siyano inenge iri pachiito iyi inonzi donzo kana kuti mood yechiito ichi. Kune madonzo echiito akawanda muChiShona sekuratidzwa kwakaitwa pazasi:

1. Donzo rokuita (infinitive mood)

a) Baba ndivo vari kurwara.

b) Vana vanofanira kudzidza nesimba.

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Chirewauwandu (quantitative)

By |2022-09-15T12:45:26+02:00January 24th, 2023|O Level Shona Notes|

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Chirewauwandu (Quantitave)

Chirewauwandu inzwi rinotsanangura zveuzhinji kana zvekushomeka kwechinhu kana zvinhu. Sokuti:

mbudzi dzose (mbudzi zhinji, dzakawanda, pasina kana yasarira)

manzwi ako omene (manzwi ako asina kuwedzerwa)

Maumbirwo echirewauwandu

Chirewauwandu chinoumbwa sezvizvi:

chivakashure/chiwedzera chechirewauwandu (quantitative prefix) + vararinoshanduka (quantitative stem)  +dzitsi

Muenzaniso

zv-   + -o-     + -se                     […]

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Chiratidzi (Demonstrative)

By |2022-09-15T12:45:26+02:00January 24th, 2023|O Level Shona Notes|

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Chiratidzi (Demonstrative)

Kune mhando mbiri dzezviratidzi:

1) Zviratidzi zvepedyo. (near demostrative)

2) Zviratidzi zvekure. (far demonstrative)

Zviratidzi zvinoenderana nemipanda yemazita yazvinodudzira sezvizvi:

Maumbirwo ezviratidzi

Mazita emupanda mumwe nemumwe ose anowirirana nechiratidzi chemupanda chimwechete chekure uye chimwechete chepadyo. Zviratidzi zvekure nezvepadyo zvakasiyana maumbirwo azvo.

1. Zviratidzi zvepedyo ( near demonstratives)

Chitsigisi   + chiratidza mupanda chechiratidzi (stabiliser + demonstrative […]

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Rebeso Dzechiito (Verb extensions) Part 1

By |2022-09-15T12:45:33+02:00January 24th, 2023|O Level Shona Notes, Shona Grammer|

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Midzi yezviito inogona kuvedzerwa kuti ireve zvakada kuti siyanei zvichienderana nechishuwo chemutauri. Kune nzira dzakasiyana siyana dzekuvedzera nadzo midzi yezviito. Nzira idzi dzinonzi rebeso dzezviito kana kuti zvivanduriro zvezviito vamwewo vanyori navana mazvikokota veShona vanodzidaidza kuti zvivanduridzo. Izvi zvinongoenderana ne Chikandamazeko  chemunyori mumwe nemumwe.

Kazhinji kacho zita […]

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Chipauro (Adjective)

By |2022-09-15T12:45:25+02:00January 24th, 2023|O Level Shona Notes|

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Chipauro (Adjective)

Chipauro inzwi rinoshandiswa kutsanangura zita sokuti: Murume murefu.

Maumbirwo ezvipauro

Chipauro chinowirirana nezita rachirikutsanangura pazvivakashure zvacho. Chipauro chakaumbwa sezvizvi:

Chivakashure + Dzitsi rechipauro.

Mienzaniso

Zvivakashure zvezvipauro

Sezvaratidzwa pamusoro chipauro chinotora chivakashure chemupanda wezita rachirikutsanangura. Zvichireva kuti kana zita risina chivakashure chipauro chacho chinenge chisinawo chivakashure. Sokuti:

(ri-) + -chira (ri-) -chena           […]

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Rebeso Dzechiito (Verb Extensions) Part 2

By |2022-09-15T12:45:30+02:00January 24th, 2023|O Level Shona Notes, Shona Grammer|

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Mienzaniso tichishandisa zvirevo zvakazara.

  1. Vari kurongonora matanda kubakwa rehuni.
  2. Endai nawo kundosunungura tambo yacho.
  3. Regedza kunamanura mapepa iwayo.
  4. Murume uye akapetenura bepanhau ndokutanga kuriverenga.

 

Tichishandisa mienzaniso yezvirevo zvakazara.

  1. Arikifunira kuenderera mberi nezvaanga achiita kana achida kuwirirana neni.
  2. Mukadzi uye anotukirira wena.
  3. Chekerera pamwe chete.

 

Mienzaniso tichishandisa zvirevo zvakazara.

  1. Vanofanira kudzokorora pese pavarima.
  2. Vashandi vakadzimurura moto.

Mienzaniso tichishandisa zvirevo zvizere

  1. Vanhu vakaungana […]
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Mhando Dzenzwisiso nemibvunzo

By |2022-09-15T12:45:20+02:00January 24th, 2023|O Level Shona Notes|

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Zwisiso (Comprehension)

Pabvunzo dzegore roga roga kunouya mubvunzo weNzisiso kupepa rekutanga reShona. Mubvunzo uyu unenge uine mamakisi makumi matatu [30] tichibatanidza nemamakisi gumi [10] epfupiso.

Kunze kwepfupiso Nzwisiso ibvunza mibvunzo pamusoro pendima inenge yakapihwa. Pane mhando dzakasiyana siyana dzemibvunzo inouya kuNzwisiso kusanganisira inotevera:

a) Mibvunzo inoda mhinduro iri mundima yakapiwa sokuti: ” […]

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Chirevamwene (possesive)

By |2022-09-15T12:45:29+02:00January 24th, 2023|O Level Shona Notes, Shona Grammer|

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Chidudzirazita chinoratidza muridzi (mwene) wechinhu chirikutaurwa nezvacho. Chirewamwene chinowanzowirirana nezita rachirikududzira sokuti:

chikoro                                       chedu

pamba                                         […]

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Pfupiso (Summary)

By |2022-09-15T12:45:20+02:00January 24th, 2023|O Level Shona Notes|

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Pfupiso (Summary)

Pamubvunzo weNzwisiso panenge paine mubvunzo wepfupiso unenge uine mamakisi gumi [10]. KuShona kune mhando mbiri dzepfupiso inonzi paChirungu precis neinonzi summary. Hazvinyanyokoshi kuti uzive mutsauko uri pakati pepfupiso mbiri idzi. Zvakakosha pakupindura mubvunzo wepfupiso ndeizvi:

a) Nyatsoverenga mubvunzo uzive zvaurikuda kuti upfupikise chaizvo. Kunyangwe zvazvo mibvunzo yepfupiso isingavanzo shanduka usachimbidze kupindura mubvunzo […]

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