January 2023

Factors,Inputs and outputs of photosynthesis

By |2022-09-15T12:41:57+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level Science Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

ZIMSEC O Level Combined Science: The test for starch

The requirements of photosynthesis

  • As already mentioned the food making process in plants is called photosynthesis.
  • In order for a plant to […]
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The digestion process

By |2022-09-15T12:41:49+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level Science Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

digestive_system_-min The digestive system of a human being. Image credit MediaWiki ZIMSEC O Level Combined Science Notes: The digestion process

  • Food is broken down in the alimentary system from large pieces/molecules into smaller molecules.
  • The food most mammals ingest is in large pieces e.g. leaves, grass, cake, meat etc.
  • All […]
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Examining the structure of stems and roots

By |2022-09-15T12:41:41+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level Science Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

Tree roots. Image credit lawnsite.com Tree roots. Image credit lawnsite.com ZIMSEC O Level Combined Science Notes: Examining the structure of stems and roots

Aim: To examine the structure of roots and stems under a microscope/bio-viewer.

Materials: Bio-set and bio-viewers, microscopes, prepared slides of root and stem sections.

Method Structure of roots. [...]
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Blood and its properties

By |2022-09-15T12:40:36+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level Science Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

The composition of blood. The composition of blood.  ZIMSEC O Level Combined Science Notes: Blood and its properties

  • Blood circulating in a mammal constitutes about 7.5% of its body mass.
  • An average human weighing between 68-80 kgs has about 4.7 to 5 litres of blood in their body
  • Blood can be considered as tissue […]
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Experiment: Comparing the water holding capacity of the soil

By |2022-09-15T12:40:27+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level Science Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

Testing the water holding capacity of soil Testing the water holding capacity of soil ZIMSEC O Level Combined Science Notes: Comparing the water holding capacity of the soil

Materials: Measuring cylinders, funnels, cotton wool, water, dry soil samples, stop watch/clock

Method

  1. Set up your apparatus as shown in the diagram
  2. Add known volume of water
  3. Measure […]
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Structure of atoms: protons,electrons and neutrons

By |2022-09-15T12:40:19+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level Science Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

The atomic structure of carbon. Image credit ucsb.edu The atomic structure of carbon. Image credit ucsb.edu ZIMSEC O Level Combined Science Notes: Structure of atoms: protons,electrons and neutrons

Protons and neutrons

  • The protons are the positive charge in the nucleus of an atom
  • The neutrons are also in the nucleus but they have […]
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Loading a beam

By |2022-09-15T12:39:51+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level Science Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

Loading a beam Loading a beam ZIMSEC O Level Combined Science Notes: Loading a beam

  • When a beam is loaded it will bend
  • Bending movement creates stress
  • The top of the beam is compressed and the underside is stretched
  • This is because there are compressive forces at the top and stretching/tensile forces at the underside
  • If […]
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Experiment: The reaction of metals and water

By |2022-09-15T12:39:39+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level Science Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

ZIMSEC O Level Combined Science Notes: Experiment: The reaction of metals and water

Aim: Investigating and Observing the reactions of metals and water

Materials: calcium, magnesium, zinc, lead, iron, copper, beaker, test tubes, filter funnel, water, splint, burner, universal indicator

Some metals like calcium react with water. Some metals like calcium react with water.

Method

  1. Place a […]
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Steel making

By |2022-09-15T12:39:21+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level Science Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

Steel beams. Image credit  risleysteelservices.ca Steel beams. Image credit risleysteelservices.ca ZIMSEC O Level Combined Science Notes: Steel making

  • The iron from the oxygen lance process is poured into a ladle and
  • Small amounts of other metals are mixed with it
  • It is mixed with metals such as:
  • manganese, cobalt, chromium […]
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