O Level Science Notes

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September 2016

Marginal areas in Zimbabwe

By |2017-01-17T11:11:09+02:00September 16th, 2016|Notes, O Level Science Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

A solar pump in a rural marginal area. Image credit  massmaninter.com

A solar pump in a rural marginal area. Image credit massmaninter.com ZIMSEC O Level Combined Science Notes: Marginal areas in Zimbabwe
  • Large areas of Zimbabwe are marginal areas
  • Marginal areas are mostly located in the lowveld in western and southern […]

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Managing Ecosystems

By |2017-01-17T11:11:10+02:00September 16th, 2016|Notes, O Level Science Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

The savannah. Image credit wildnatureinstitute.org

The savannah. Image credit wildnatureinstitute.org ZIMSEC O Level Combined Science Notes: Managing Ecosystems
  • The ecosystem needs to looked after to ensure it is in balance
  • Humans can have good or bad effects on the ecosystem
  • Soil is an especially important component of the Zimbabwean ecosystem because […]

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Protecting Water supplies

By |2017-01-17T11:11:11+02:00September 16th, 2016|Notes, O Level Science Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

A protected well. Image credit totallandcare.org

A protected well. Image credit totallandcare.org ZIMSEC O Level Combined Science Notes: Testing the purity of water
  • Most rural areas do not have access to running tap water
  • Their water comes from various sources including dams, wells, boreholes, springs
  • Some of these sources are produce […]

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Testing the purity of water

By |2017-01-17T11:11:12+02:00September 16th, 2016|Notes, O Level Science Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

Milk can be used to test the purity of water. Image credit wordpress.com

Milk can be used to test the purity of water. Image credit wordpress.com ZIMSEC O Level Combined Science Notes: Testing the purity of water

Materials: 4 test tubes, sterilised fresh milk, tap water, borehole water, spring water. plugs

Method

  1. Collect water […]

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The purification of Water

By |2017-01-17T11:11:13+02:00September 16th, 2016|Notes, O Level Science Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

Water Purification Plant. Image credit cdrmaguire.com

Water Purification Plant. Image credit cdrmaguire.com ZIMSEC O Level Combined Science Notes: The purification of Water
  • Large residential areas such as Harare, Chitungwiza and other urban establishments are supplied with piped running water
  • This water is treated so that it is safe to drink and […]

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Environmental Health: Air pollution

By |2017-01-17T11:11:14+02:00September 15th, 2016|Notes, O Level Science Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

Smog in China. Image credit ctvnews.ca

Smog in China. Image credit ctvnews.ca ZIMSEC O Level Combined Science Notes: Environmental Health: Air pollution
  • Urban and industrial areas in Zimbabwe produce waste gases which enter the atmosphere
  • Often these gases are toxic and contain a high level of smoke particles
  • A thick haze […]

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Centralised Sewage Treatment Works

By |2017-01-17T11:11:15+02:00September 15th, 2016|Notes, O Level Science Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

Sewage treatment works at Morton Jaffray,Harare. Image credit hararenews.co.zw

Sewage treatment works at Morton Jaffray,Harare. Image credit hararenews.co.zw ZIMSEC O Level Combined Science Notes: Centralised Sewage Treatment Works
  • Are used to collect and treat sewage waste from large industrial and residential areas
  • They treat large quantities of human waste
  • The raw […]

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Water closet/Flush toilet

By |2017-01-17T11:11:15+02:00September 14th, 2016|Notes, O Level Science Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

Water Closet. Image credit rakbathware.com

Water Closet. Image credit rakbathware.com ZIMSEC O Level Combined Science Notes: Water closet/Flush toilet
  • Is part of the water borne sewage
  • This means that wastes from the toilet are carried by water to a place where it is processed
  • This is very common in urban homes […]

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Blair toilet

By |2017-01-17T11:11:16+02:00September 14th, 2016|Notes, O Level Science Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

Blair Toilet. Image credit thestandard.co.zw

Blair Toilet. Image credit thestandard.co.zw ZIMSEC O Level Combined Science Notes: Blair toilet
  • This was developed by the Blair Research Laboratory

The Blair Toilet.

The Blair Toilet.
  • It is a refinement of the pit latrine
  • They use […]

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Pit latrine

By |2017-01-17T11:11:17+02:00September 14th, 2016|Notes, O Level Science Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

Pit Latrine. Image credit sswm.info

Pit Latrine. Image credit sswm.info ZIMSEC O Level Combined Science Notes: Pit Latrine
  • It consists of a deep hole in the ground into which all human urine and faeces (excrement) are deposited

A pit latrine

A pit latrine
    […]

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