Workers at a sawmill. Image credit

ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes:Industrial Studies: Introduction

  • These are also known asĀ processing and manufacturing industries.
  • In these industries, the production processes are undertaken in a unit called the factory.
  • It is important to distinguish between processing and manufacturing.
  • Processing involves the initial removal of impurities from raw materials while manufacturing is a step further to make or produce end-products as shown below.
Primary IndustrySecondary ProcessingSecondary manufacturingEnd Product
Iron Ore miningPig iron making in blast furnacesSteel making in steel millsSteel in the form of Barbed wire etc
Sugar Cane fieldsProcessing in a sugar mill e.g. purificationMaking of sugar in the sugar manufacturing plantSugar e.g. brown sugar,icing sugar etc
Forest PlantationProcessing in saw mills e.g. to remove barksMaking of furniture in a furniture plantFurniture e.g in the form of a table
Fishing VesselGutting, cleaning and freezingCooking and canningReady to eat fish e.g in the form of canned sardines or spam

To access more topics go to the O Level Geography Notes page