ZIMSEC O Level Business Studies Notes: Leadership: The communication process

  • Communication is the exchange of information, ideas, opinions and feelings
  • The process of communication and it’s stages can be shown on a diagram known as the communication model

The Communication Model

  • The communication process involves encoding of information by the sender e.g. turning ideas into spoken words,
  • the encoded message is then transmitted through a medium/channel such as the air, phone etc
  • When the message reaches the receiver it is then decoded back into ideas
  • The receiver then encodes his/her feedback back to the sender
  • Feedback is when the receiver sends back information back to the sender concerning the sender’s message
  • For example a manager verbally allocates a task to a subordinate
  • When the subordinate completes the task they inform the manager that is feedback
  • Or the subordinate seeks clarification from the manager that is feedback
  • Feedback ensures that the right message has been received

Classification of communication

  • Communication can be classified in three ways:
    1. Media
    2. Direction
    3. Degree of formality


NB Click on each form of communication to learn more about it, its advantages and disadvantages


Degree of formality

  • Communication can be viewed as formal or informal
  • Formal communication is planned, arranged, official and approved
  • Formal communication takes place within the confines of the organisational structure
  • Formal communication can be visual (graphs about the organisation’s financial performance), written(reports about the organisation’s plans) or spoken ( a superior reprimanding a subordinate)
  • Informal communication is also known as the Grape Vine.

NB Click on the Grape Vine to know more about it.

To access more topics go to the O Level Business Notes page