Written Communication. Image credit theodysseyonline.com

ZIMSEC O Level Business Studies Notes: Written Communication

  • Involves any type of message that involves the use of the written word
  • It includes things like emails, reports, letters, instant messages (Whatsapp and Facebook)


  • Same message can be delivered to different receives with speed e.g. an email to thousands/millions of recipients
  • Everyone can receive the same message at the same time (mass communication) e.g. newspaper
  • Can deal with a large audience quickly
  • The message can be circulated at the same time using various means e.g. emails, printed, posted on a website, send via instant message, on social media forums etc
  • It can act as a back up to complicated verbal communication e.g. on an advanced Engineering topic or a multi-paced business merger
  • There is a permanent record that can be kept for future reference


  • There is no guarantee that the recipient has understood the message
  • Ambiguities cannot be explained
  • There is delayed feedback
  • It is impersonal
  • Reduces the sender’s participation
  • There is no room for non-verbal communication such as gestures and facial expressions etc.

To access more topics go to the O Level Business Notes page