Horizontal communication is between peers. Image credit life.wevorce.com

ZIMSEC O Level Business Studies Notes: Leadership: Upward, Downward, Horizontal Communication

  • When it comes to direction communication can be classified as horizontal, downward or upward
  • Downward communication follows the chain of command from the topmost levels to the subordinates
  • This can be used for such things as:
    1. Giving orders and instructions to subordinates
    2. To communicate objectives and goals to subordinates
    3. To assign work
    4. To control operations
  • Upward communication is when information flows up the chain of command from subordinates to superiors
  • This can happen in instances such as:
    1. To report back on assigned tasks and commands
    2. To express views
    3. To highlight problems
    4. To seek clarification from superior
    5. To make requests to superiors
  • Both upward communication and downward communication are known as vertical communication
  • Horizontal communication refers to both formal and informal contact between people who are at the same level within the organisation.
  • This can happen when peers come together to:
    1. To coordinate
    2. To solve problems together
    3. To offer advice to each other
  • Communication can also be classified as either two way or one-way
  • One way communication is when communication flows in one direction only and the receiver has little room to provide feedback, seek clarification or say whether they have understood the message
  • Examples of one way communication include notice boards etc
  • One way communication is often associated with the autocratic leadership style
  • Two way communication is when there is ample room for feedback
  • This allows the receiver say whether they have understood the message and to seek clarification
  • It also allows the listener to contribute their own ideas to the process
  • Two way communication is often associated with the democratic leadership style
  • It also leads to better decision making

To access more topics go to the O Level Business Notes page

- See latest Zimbabwe grocery prices -

Deals

SEE LATEST SUPERMARKET PRICES, SHOP FOR GROCERIES VIA WHATSAPP
SEE PRICES & NEWS
We publish the latest grocery prices from Zimbabwean supermarkets. We also deliver groceries online

Quick NetOne, Telecel, Africom, And Econet Airtime Recharge

If anything goes wrong, click here to enter your query.