ZIMSEC O Level Commerce Notes: Division of Labour and Mass production
DIVISION OF LABOUR
Production activites can be classified according to two basic principles:
Division of Labour
this refers to the breakdown of work or trading activities into individual tasks which are then allocated and done by different people. Examples include:
The division of sectors into industries for example: butchers, farmers, potters, mechanics etc
The division into processes: for example the iron industry can be divided into processes that begin with the extraction of ore, smelting, turning pig iron into steel.
Geographical division- this is the division of labour arising from physical conditions of the region for example availability of coal or gold in a given area or using climatic conditions such as Mashonaland and its vast maize farms.
Benefits of Division of labour
- more goods are produced for various markets
- Large scale production has resulted in more people being employed
- Mass production has enabled people to afford different types of goods e.g. Tvs, Cars resulting in higher standards of living
- Automation and Mechanisation results in faster production rates
- Prompted the interdependence of workers leading to trade
- Leaders to lower production costs resulting in consumers paying lower prices
Disadvantages of Division of labour
- leaders to interdependence of workers
- Due to interdependence of workers any disruptions in any part of the production line might affect the whole production process of the goods.
- Goods produced are standardised thus robbing people of individuality
- Tasks become repetitive and boring leading to workplace alienation
- Mechanisation and automation has resulted in unemployment
- Specialisation-is doing a job one is good/talented at.
- Standardisation- this is the practice of making identical goods e.g. cars of the same model have the same exact specifications and features.
- Simplification-processes and tasks are easier to perfom.
Mass production– is the making of goods in large quantities and the provision of serves on a large scale.
Benefits off mass production
- low cost of production resulting in lower prices
- goods are always available
- improves standards of living
- leads to automation and mechanisation
- leaders to standardisation of products
- leads to simplification of processes
- leads to specialisation of workers
- leads to trade.
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