Benito Mussolini with Adolf Hitler. Image credit Smithsonian Magazine

ZIMSEC O Level History Notes: Dictatorship in Europe: Dictatorship in Italy: Benito Mussolini: Mussolini’s Foreign policy

Foreign expansion

  • As things got difficult at home Mussolini started embarking on foreign adventures.
  • He praised glories of war and promised the recreation of the Roman Empire in the Mediterranean.
  • He undermined the League of Nations by attacking Abyssinia a fellow member of the League.
  • The attack was in fulfillment of Mussolini’s declaration of an overseas campaign by Italy.
  • The policy was aimed at reducing poverty, unemployment and encouraging emigration.
  • The invasion of Abyssinia was also aimed at avenging a humiliating defeat suffered by Italy at Adowa( Adwa) in 1896.
  • Mussolini was emboldened by the fact that France and Britain were anxious for his support thus would not take any action against her.

Alliances and Friendship

  • He signed the Rome-Berlin Axis with Adolf Hitler, an alliance that enabled them to work together in the future.
  • The alliance was in contravention of the Versailles treaty and undermined the League of Nations.
  • The Rome Berlin Axis expanded to included Japan in 1939 thus resulting in the Rome-Berlin-Tokyo axis.
  • The alliance was termed as an Anti-Comintern pact against communism.
  • The alliance was stronger than Britain and France’s alliance under the auspices of the League of Nations.
  • In addition Mussolini joined Hitler in the support of General Franco to fight the Spanish government.
  • During the Spanish Civil war Italian submarines sank vessels trading with the Spanish Republic.

To access more topics go to the History Notes page.


Quick NetOne, Econet, And Telecel Airtime Recharge