A painting depicting a typical Portuguese army in the 16th century. Image credit paradoxplaza.com

A painting depicting a typical Portuguese army in the 16th century. Image credit paradoxplaza.com

ZIMSEC O Level History Notes: The Portuguese in Zambezi Valley: Methods used by the Portuguese to control the Mutapa State

  • The Portuguese used a variety of methods to try and exert control on the Mutapa State and these included:
  • Taking control of the trade in the Mutapa State for themselves.
  • Controlling the mining activities in the state using forced labour.
  • Converting some of the leaders and their subjections into Christianity e.g. Negomo (Sebastiao)
  • Encouraged and intervened in civil wars.
  • Carried out slave trade.
  • Forced the Mutapa and his chiefs to pay tribute to them.
  • Singed treaties and concessions.
  • Created chikunda forces.
  • Established private prisons to incarcerate, intimidate, flog and punish Africans.
  • Took large swathes of land from the Africans.
  • Married Mutapa women.
  • Refused to pay their taxes.
  • Adopted the Mutapa traditional religion and customs.
  • Introduced the credit system.
  • Forced the Mutapa to expel the Swahili traders.
  • Established feiras in the Mutapa state.

To access more topics go to the History Notes page.


Quick NetOne, Telecel, Africom, And Econet Airtime Recharge

If anything goes wrong, click here to enter your query.