Seed germination. Image credit

Seed germination. Image credit

ZIMSEC O Level Combined Science Notes: Reproduction in plants: Reproduction in Plants:The germination process


  • Germination- is the beginning of growth in a plant.
  • is the process by which a plant grows from a seed
  • When the seeds that are released by plants fall to the ground, some of them will germinate
  • On farms and in gardens seeds are provided with the best conditions that allow them to germinate
  • Inside each seed is a miniature plant/embryo which can grow into a new plant
  • The embryo is formed after the fertilization of the ovule
  • The seed has all the nutrients it needs to germinate stored within itself
The features of monocotyledons and dicotyledons. Image credit

The features of monocotyledons and dicotyledons. Image credit

  • There are two types of seeds:
  • Monocotyledons for example maize seeds and
  • Dicotyledons for example bean seeds
  • The food store in bean seeds is formed in the two seed leaves which are known as cotyledons
  • The cotyledons are the first leaves of the seedling
  • A maize grain has only one cotyledon which is very small
  • In a monocotyledon seed such as maize the food is stored in a different part of the plant called the endosperm
  • Certain conditions must be met in order for germination to occur and for the plants to grow into healthy plants
  • For seeds to germinate they need:
  • water
  • an appropriate temperature
  • oxygen which is available in atmospheric air
  • Oxygen is needed for respiration
  • The energy released by the respiration process is used by the germinating seed to grow
  • Water is needed to break the testa and for hydrolysis i.e the breakdown of protein and carbohydrate stores
  • A suitable temperature is also required for enzymes to act in the germination process

To access more topics go to the Combined Science Notes page.