ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes: Landfroms resulting from faulting.
Major landforms that result from faulting include:
1. Block Mountains
The formation of block-mountains (Horst). Image by WikiCommons
Faults typically occur in series as shown in the diagram above.
The formation of faults is sometimes accompanied by upward movement of the crust
This gives rise to raised fault-bordered blocks called block mountains.
These are highlands surrounded by fault lines.
Either sides of the mountain will be sinking/lower leaving a central raised block.
The existance of fault lines which border the block on either side results in upward displacedment of the central block and/or downward displacement or sinking of the blocks on either side leaving block mountains to form.
Examples of block mountains are Ruwenzori Germany’s Black Forests (here they are called Horsts) and the Vosges in France and the Jura mountains.
The steep sides of both block mountains and rift valleys are known as scarps or sometimes fault scarps.
Block mountains have very steep pronounced sides.
The top of block mountains is usually made up of very flat planes known as plateaus.
At times an entire region is crossed by several parallel series of faults between which the crust has been uplifted or tilted so that a series of block mountains develops.