Panels are made from linked solar cells. Image credit

Panels are made from linked solar cells. Image credit

ZIMSEC O Level Combined Science Notes: Experiment: Connecting solar cells to make panel

Aim:  Connecting solar cells to make a solar panel

Materials: 3 or more solar cells, connecting leads, a voltmeter and an ammeter


  1. Take the equipment outside and conduct it in sunny weather
  2. Connect one solar cell to an ammeter
  3. Connect a voltmeter across the cell
  4. Take the ammeter and voltmeter readings in full sunlight
  5. Shade the solar cell using a book and take the readings again
  6. Connect two and then three cells in series
  7. Take ammeter and voltmeter readings
  8. Connect two and then three solar cells in parallel
  9. Take the readings and record the results

Results and Observations

  • A solar cell produces about 0.5 V and 0.03 Amps of current in bright sunlight
  • Little voltage(almost zero voltage) and 0 Amps is produced by the solar cell in sunlight
  • Connecting the solar cells in series increases the voltage
  • When two cells are connected the voltage doubles to about 1 V
  • When three cells are used in series a voltage of around 1.5 V is recorded
  • When the cells are placed in parallel the current increases
  • Two cells double to the current for example 0.06 Amps
  • Three cells increase the current to about 0.09 Amps
  • This is assuming each of the cells used produce about 0.03 Amps current


  • Solar panels require sunlight to produce electricity
  • Connecting cells in series increases their output voltage
  • Connecting cells in parallel increases their output current

To access more topics go to the Combined Science Notes page.