Robert Mugabe the First Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980

ZIMSEC O Level History Notes: The Struggle for Independence in Colonial Zimbabwe 1900-1980: End of White Rule and Independence

  • Although Africans had the most causalities in the war, it is important to note that whites were also killed or injured
  • Many white farmers, missionaries and miners were killed
  • More than 30 missionaries were murdered during the war but they had been assisting the guerrillas
  • In 1979 four Dominican nuns and three Jesuit priests were killed at St Pauls Mission by the settlers soldiers
  • 12 people were also killed at Elim Pentecostal Mission by guerrillas
  • Although the colonial government employed a lot of brutal tactics to try and suppress the uprisings, the war escalated and could not be stopped
  • The number of guerrillas increased by the end of the year and the martial law covered about 93% of Rhodesia
  • Smith agreed to the franchise and transfer or power to Africans was organized in two stages, that is, the Internal Settlement and the Lancaster House Conference

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