About Karen Mukungurutse

She holds a Bachelor of Science Honours Degree in Social Work from Bindura University. She has a passion for helping others and has been involved in numerous academic and social projects.

January 2023

Religious Organization of the Mutapa State

By |2022-09-15T12:37:18+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level History Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

Some people still practice the African Religion of the Mutapa state.

ZIMSEC O Level History Notes: The Mutapa Kingdom:Religious Organization of the Mutapa State

  • The Munhumutapa was the supreme leader and the religious leader of the Mutapa people.
  • He had the ultimate religious powers.
  • Evidence from oral tradition argues that the Munhumutapa […]

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A list of known Mhondoros/Svikiros in the Mutapa Kingdom

By |2022-09-15T12:37:18+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level History Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

Nyakasikana the last known medium of Nehanda.

ZIMSEC O Level History Notes: The Mutapa Kingdom: A list of known Mhondoros/Svikiros in the Mutapa Kingdom

  • Mhondoros were the national spirit mediums/ancestral spirits in the Mutapa state
  • They were usually made up of royal ancestral spirits
  • The word svikiro comes from a Shona verb (infinitive) kusvika which […]

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Features of the late Stone Age

By |2022-09-15T12:37:17+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level History Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

Microlith tools from Southern Africa. Image credit anthropology.net

ZIMSEC O Level History Notes: Early Societies (Late Stone Age – Early Iron Age): Features of the late Stone Age

  • It occurred from 7000 to 1500 years ago.
  • It was characterized by microlithic industries
  • Microlithic means small and refined tools made up of stone
  • […]


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Features of the early Iron Age

By |2022-09-15T12:37:14+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level History Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

Traditional iron smelting. Image credit heritagedaily.com

ZIMSEC O Level History Notes: Early Societies (Late Stone Age – Early Iron Age): Features of the early Iron Age

  • The early Iron Age succeeded the late Stone Age.
  • Tools and weapons made in the Early Iron Age were made from iron and wood
  • This is […]

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Bantu Migrations

By |2022-09-15T12:37:16+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level History Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

A mud hut reminiscent of the Early Iron Age. Image credit Pininterest.com

ZIMSEC O Level History Notes: Early Societies (Late Stone Age – Early Iron Age): Bantu Migrations

  • Bantu migrations are believed to have been caused by the use of iron
  • The Bantu are a group of about 300-400 enthinic groups from […]

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Rise of Agriculture and Domestication and Rearing of animals

By |2022-09-15T12:37:16+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level History Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

Slash and burn agriculture was practiced during the Early Stone Age. Image credit MediaWiki

ZIMSEC O Level History Notes: Early Societies (Late Stone Age – Early Iron Age): Rise of Agriculture and Domestication and Rearing of animals

  • Rise of Agriculture and Domestication and Rearing of animals

Agriculture

  • The use of iron tools led […]

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Effects of the usage of iron

By |2022-09-15T12:37:15+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level History Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

An Iron Age compound (reconstruction). Image credit archaeology.org

ZIMSEC O Level History Notes: Early Societies (Late Stone Age – Early Iron Age): Effects of the usage of iron

  • the effects of the usage of iron during the Iron Age can be divided into various groups:

Economic effects

  • The introduction made it possible for […]

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The development and effects of trade

By |2022-09-15T12:37:15+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level History Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

ZIMSEC O Level History Notes: Early Societies (Late Stone Age – Early Iron Age): The development and effects of trade

  • The use of iron tools meant high degree and skill in the Early Iron Age and Late Iron Age
  • This led to the development of trade both internally with locals and […]

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The differences between Early Iron Age and Late Iron Age

By |2022-09-15T12:37:14+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level History Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

ZIMSEC O Level History Notes: Early Societies (Late Stone Age – Early Iron Age): The differences between Early Iron Age and Late Iron Age

  • Here is a summary of the differences between Late Iron Age and Early Iron Ages

 

To access more topics go to the History Notes page.


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The structure of Great Zimbabwe:

By |2022-09-15T12:37:10+02:00January 24th, 2023|Notes, O Level History Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

Great Zimbabwe Ruins

ZIMSEC O Level History Notes: Great Zimbabwe state (Kingdom): The structure of Great Zimbabwe

  • The structure is found in south-east Zimbabwe near Masvingo
  • The Shona name for the ruins is Dzimbabwe (variations of the name include Dzimbahwe, Zimboa/Symbaoe[Portuguese sources])
  • The names means ‘houses of stone’ or ‘house of stone’
  • It was […]

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