ZIMSEC O Level Commerce Notes:  Communication: The communication process

  • Communication is the secret sauce of civilisation and makes us who we are
  • Communication can be defined as the exchange of information, ideas, opinions and feelings
  • The process of communication and it’s stages can be shown on a diagram such shown below

The Communication Model

  • The above is also known as the communication model
  • The communication process involves encoding of information by the sender i.e turning ideas into spoken words,
  • the encoded message is then transmitted through a medium/channel such as the air, phone etc
  • When the message reaches the receiver it is then decoded back into ideas
  • The receiver then encodes his/her feedback back to the sender
  • Feedback is when the receiver sends back information back to the sender concerning the sender’s message
  • For example a manager verbally allocates a task to a subordinate
  • When the subordinate completes the task they inform back to  the manager that is feedback
  • Or the subordinate seeks clarification from the manager that is feedback
  • Feedback ensures that the right message has been received

Classification of communication

  • Communication can be classified in three ways:
    1. Media
    2. Direction within the organisation for example downward communication occurs when a superior tells a subordinate (someone who works underneath them) to do something
    3. Degree of formality i.e informal or formal communication


  • Refers to the means of communication.
  • It is the plural of medium
  • There are three forms of communication:
    1. Verbal Communication
    2. Written Communication
    3. Visual Communications

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