Burning wood. Image credit villagenews.com

ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes: Natural Resources: Energy: Advantages and Disadvantages of wood/crop residue/cow dung  as a source of energy


  • Renewable energy sources.
  • Cheap or free in rural areas.
  • Easily accessible where forests or woodlands/crops/animals exist.
  • Tsotso stoves conserve live trees.
  • Technology very cheap and readily available.
  • Ash can be used as fertilizer.
  • Multi-functional energy sources.


  • Over-exploitation of forests has serious environmental effects such as deforestation, destruction of ecosystems and animal habitats, accelerated soil erosion among others.
  • Air pollution occurs from burning of the energy sources.
  • Use can destroy forests or homes through accidental fires.

To access more topics go to the O Level Geography Notes page