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ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes: Migration: Causes of Migrations

  • Generally factors that affect migration are divide into two:
  • push factors and
  • pull factors
  • Push factors are those that are responsible for driving people from an area
  • Pull factors are those that attract people to an area.
  • Any movement by people is for a reason and the reason can be classified under these two categories
  • The push factors are normally negative since they force someone to leave an area
  • Pull factors are normally positive since they attract people to a certain area
  • Push factors encourage involuntary migrations while the pull factors encourage voluntary migrations
  • Examples of Push factors are:
  • lack of services
  • lack of safety
  • high crime
  • crop failure
  • drought
  • flooding
  • poverty
  • war
  • Lack of employment/Unemployment
  • Examples of Pull factors are:
  • higher employment
  • more wealth
  • better services
  • good climate
  • safer, less crime
  • political stability
  • more fertile land
  • lower risk from natural hazards
  • Peace
  • Push and pull factors work in tandem people are pushed and pulled to areas that provide whatever it is that they are seeking
  • Causes of migration can also be grouped as economic, social, political and environmental
  • Economic migration – moving to find work or follow a particular career path for example Zimbabweans going to South Africa
  • Social migration – moving somewhere for a better quality of life or to be closer to family or friends for example rural to urban migration
  • Political migration – moving to escape political persecution or war
  • Environmental causes of migration include natural disasters such as flooding for example areas like Muzarabani that are prone to flooding

To access more topics go to the O Level Geography Notes page

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