• In the workplace, people have various needs that they seek to satisfy.
  • These needs can be both intrinsic and extrinsic, and they can significantly impact an individual’s job satisfaction, motivation, and performance.
  • Understanding these needs is essential for managers and organizations to create a work environment that fosters employee well-being, engagement, and productivity.
  • There are many ways in which needs can be grouped, identified and explained.
  • One popular way is to split human needs in the workplace into two categories which are Intrinsic and Extrinsic needs
  • Intrinsic needs: These are needs that are inherent to the job or the individual’s personal values and goals. Examples include the need for autonomy, mastery, and purpose.
  • Extrinsic needs: These are needs that are external to the job, such as compensation, benefits, recognition, and status.
  • Another popular way to group and identify needs in the workplace is to use Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs theory
  • According to this method needs can be grouped as follows:
    • Physiological needs: These are basic human needs that must be satisfied for survival, such as food, water, and shelter.
    • Safety needs: These are needs related to security and protection, such as job security and physical safety.
    • Social needs: These are needs related to social interactions and relationships, such as the need for belongingness and friendship.
    • Esteem needs: These are needs related to self-esteem and recognition, such as the need for status and achievement.
    • Self-actualization needs: These are needs related to personal growth and fulfilment, such as the need for creativity and meaningful work.
  • There are several theories that explain how understanding the needs of workers can be used to motivate workers so they work harder
    • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: Maslow’s theory suggests that human needs are hierarchical, with basic physiological and safety needs at the bottom, and higher-order needs such as social, esteem, and self-actualization needs at the top. Employees must satisfy their lower-order needs before they can focus on higher-order needs.
    • Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory: Herzberg’s theory suggests that employees have two types of needs: hygiene needs and motivator needs. Hygiene needs are basic requirements that must be met to prevent dissatisfaction, such as adequate pay and working conditions. Motivator needs are related to job satisfaction and include opportunities for personal growth and achievement.
    • Alderfer’s ERG Theory: Alderfer’s theory suggests that human needs can be categorized into three levels: existence needs, relatedness needs, and growth needs. Existence needs are similar to Maslow’s physiological and safety needs, relatedness needs are similar to social and esteem needs, and growth needs are similar to self-actualization needs.

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