Water is a critical life resource.

ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes:Water as a renewable resource

  • Water covers over two-thirds of the earth’s surface.
  • It is found in oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, ice caps, glaciers and in underground aquifers.
  • Of the world’s most abundant water resources, only 3% is fresh water and available for human and animal consumption.
  • The remaining 97% of the world’s water resources is found in oceans and seas and is too salty for human use.
  • Of the 3% fresh water on earth, 2% is found in ice caps and glaciers in solid form, leaving only 1% for human and animal use.
  • The world’s expanding population is therefore putting pressure on the 1% available fresh water to meet their consumption demands.
  • As the world’s population expands, demand for more goods and service also expands.
  • Industrial and agricultural wastes are further reducing the amount of the 1% fresh water available for consumption.
  • There is therefore a need to re-examine the world’s water supply, consumption and management in the light of an expanding world population and increasing demands on the resources.
  • Although water is a renewable resource it can only replenish itself through the circulation of the hydrological cycle.

To access more topics go to the O Level Geography Notes page