ZIMSEC O Level History Notes: Crisis in Nguniland: The Mfecane
- It means a time of crushing
- It was also given a Sesotho name called Difaqane or Lifaqane
- It was a time of widespread warfare and disorder indigenous groups in Southern Africa from about 1815 to 1840
- When Shaka created his militaristic Zulu State, his army was involved in many battles in order to get more territories
- This marked the beginning of Mfecane and its spread
- Mfecane can be used to refer to a period when Mzilikazi was the ruler of the Matebele and dominated the Traansval
- Mzilikazi ordered the widespread massacres and destruction of all those opposing his rule to create a new Ndebele order
- Deaths caused by Mfecane are estimated to be around 1 million to 2 million
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