ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes: Natural Resources: Energy:The energy crisis in Zimbabwe:Measures
Measures have been put in place to try to resolve the energy crisis in Zimbabwe. These include:
- Imports of electricity from countries overproducing it for example from South Africa through the Insukamini interconnector near Bulawayo.
- From the giant Cahora Bassa scheme in Mozambique.
- From the Mel HEP station in the DRC.
- From Zambia’s Kafue and Mulungushi schemes.
- Entering bilateral agreements with producer countries such as Kuwait to import oil and its products at concessionary rates.
- Rationing the fuel at service stations.
- Educational campaigns to enlighten the public to conserve petrol and diesel through reducing unnecessary journeys, sharing vehicles to and from work or to use public transport.
- Use of transport with efficient fuel-burning engines.
- Afforestation and reforestation programmes in rural area for example the CAMPFIRE programme.
- Establishment of woodlots in rural areas.
- Use of the tsotso and biogas stoves.
- Use of energy substitutes for wood fuel such as solar power, biogas, coal and crop residues.
- Building of the Hwange Phase II thermal power station.
- Developing a new thermal power station in Gokwe North.
- Construction of another HEP station at Batonga gorge.
However, this option is riddled with problems, just like the Mutapa gorge and Victoria Falls in that:
- Building dams here would interfere with the Zambezi Valley national parks, safari areas and virgin, wild ecosystems.
- This is a problem of conservation versus development.
- The Zambezi River does not belong to Zimbabwe only but is shared with other countries such as Zambia, Angola, Botswana, Malawi and Mozambique.
- All these countries must approve through the Central African power corporation (CAPCO) and the Zambezi Valley Authority (ZVA) for the HEP scheme to benefit Zimbabwe.
- Zimbabwe lacks the financial resources required to build such a scheme, given the downturn in the economy.
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