Migration leads to pressure on resources in receiving areas. Image credit MediaWiki

ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes: Migration: The effects of migration

  • The movement of people from one area to another has both positive and negative effects in both the area of origin and receiving areas.
  • These effects can be social, economic or environmental
  • The migration of males and some females of 15-35 age group deprives an area of the active population thus reducing productivity in the source area leading to lower yields, hunger and lower income
  • This could also be an advantage as the depopulation of the source area may reduce pressure on resources
  • Since the 15-35 age group is also a productive age their migration will reduce birth rate in the source areas
  • This may allow investments in economic development rather than services in health and education
  • A disadvantages is that there will be under utilization of resources and infrastructure already in place; for example, under-utilization of school in small scale commercial farming area in Zimbabwe where the aged farm owners have remained
  • This further reduces the market for the local businesses and weakens family ties
  • The imbalance in the age-sex ratio may also create social problems like prostitution, extra-marital relationship hence the spread of STI and AIDS in both the source and receiving areas
  • Receiving areas may increase population densities leading to overcrowding and pressure on resources or services
  • The increase in labour force allows for further economic development
  • For example, the movement of mine and farm workers into South Africa has sustained production
  • While movement of professionals from Zimbabwe to Botswana and South Africa, weakened the Zimbabwean economy, it greatly enhanced the health, education and economic developments of the receiving areas
  • The few people who remain in the source areas will allow regeneration of vegetation and reduce land degradation as pressure is reduced on land and vegetation in rural areas
  • The inter-marriages in the receiving areas will create cultural tolerance and reduce tribalism and regionalism
  • This may however cause the spread of disease of both livestock and people for example cholera in people, bird flue┬áin chickens as people carry food with them to their destinations

To access more topics go to the O Level Geography Notes page