Migration leads to pressure on resources in receiving areas. Image credit MediaWiki

ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes: Migration: The effects of migration

  • The movement of people from one area to another has both positive and negative effects in both the area of origin and receiving areas.
  • These effects can be social, economic or environmental
  • The migration of males and some females of 15-35 age group deprives an area of the active population thus reducing productivity in the source area leading to lower yields, hunger and lower income
  • This could also be an advantage as the depopulation of the source area may reduce pressure on resources
  • Since the 15-35 age group is also a productive age their migration will reduce birth rate in the source areas
  • This may allow investments in economic development rather than services in health and education
  • A disadvantages is that there will be under utilization of resources and infrastructure already in place; for example, under-utilization of school in small scale commercial farming area in Zimbabwe where the aged farm owners have remained
  • This further reduces the market for the local businesses and weakens family ties
  • The imbalance in the age-sex ratio may also create social problems like prostitution, extra-marital relationship hence the spread of STI and AIDS in both the source and receiving areas
  • Receiving areas may increase population densities leading to overcrowding and pressure on resources or services
  • The increase in labour force allows for further economic development
  • For example, the movement of mine and farm workers into South Africa has sustained production
  • While movement of professionals from Zimbabwe to Botswana and South Africa, weakened the Zimbabwean economy, it greatly enhanced the health, education and economic developments of the receiving areas
  • The few people who remain in the source areas will allow regeneration of vegetation and reduce land degradation as pressure is reduced on land and vegetation in rural areas
  • The inter-marriages in the receiving areas will create cultural tolerance and reduce tribalism and regionalism
  • This may however cause the spread of disease of both livestock and people for example cholera in people, bird flue in chickens as people carry food with them to their destinations

To access more topics go to the O Level Geography Notes page

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