ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes: Settlements: The concentric model/Burgess’s model (1924)
- This is known alternatively as the concentric model, the ring model for urban land use or Burgess’ model.
- It was formulated by Burgess and Park in 1924 after their studies of the city of Chicago in the United States.
- Their study revealed that the city could be divided into a number of concentric land-use zones :
- The Central Business District
- The Zone of transition
- The Zone of transition
- The Zone of workingmen’s houses
- The Zone of middle income or medium density housing
- The Commuter Zone
- The model assumes that the city grows from a single nucleus (core) in concentric circles of distinct land uses.
- The city grows by urban ecology or expansion due to demand of different goods and services.
- The city will continue to grow into surrounding rural areas.
- It is the nucleus of the city
- All (communication) routes meet in this area.
- It has high rise buildings/skyscrapers.
- Rentals are normally high in this area.
- It has very few people and traffic during the night and high traffic densities of people and traffic during the day.
- It is the commercial core where hotels, banks, specialized services, theaters, departmental stores, finance houses and cinemas are found.
Zone of transition
- It surrounds the CBD
- It has residential areas with poor housing.
- It has offices and light industries.
- It is characterized by industrial functions that require a lot of land.
- It infamous for its crimes and social problems for example prostitution.
- It is characterized by transient population, migrant workers, the poor, aged and unemployment.
- Examples are Mbare and Avenues.
Zone of workingmen’s houses/Low class residential areas
- This is known as to the zone of workingmen’s houses or low-income residential zone
- This zone is found near heavy industries for example Highfield and Glen Norah suburbs near Willowvale industries and Mbare and Graniteside Industries.
- The density of houses per unit area is high
- The zone is characterized by high density suburbs with each house located on a small plot of land.
- This area is occupied by factory works, single houses, small yards and untarred roads.
Zone of middle income/medium density housing
- This is characterized by large houses,
- with gardens and broad tree-lined streets..
- A small commercial centre and
- greenbelts can be found within this zone.
- Social centers like pre-schools and schools can also be found in this zone.
- Examples are Hillside and Cranborne suburbs in Harare.
- Is located some distance away from the city center.
- People use commute to the CBD in order to get to work using trains, cars and buses.
- The zone starts off with low density, high income residential areas,
- with large spaced houses and gardens.
- In some places market gardening may be practiced for example Honey Dew farm in Greendale.
- They usually have a suburban shopping center for example Sam Levy in Borrowdale and Kamphinsa in Greendale.
- The zone may also give way to larger farms supplying fresh fruits, dairy products and vegetables to the town.
- Sometimes the farming zone may be interrupted by small dormitory towns such as Chitungwiza.
To access more topics go to the O Level Geography Notes page