Mining without capital. A Korokoza descends into a mine. Image credit

ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes: Natural Resources: Problems of Resources Exploitation

  • Resources exploitation is not easy and there are many difficulties that are faced which can be grouped into physical factors and human factors.
  • The following are physical and human factors that may cause problems of resources exploitation.

Physical environmental factors

  • Rugged terrain with steep slopes makes setting up of transport networks expensive and difficult.
  • Hot wet areas have a high incidence of diseases.
  • Swampy areas make resources exploitation difficult because the swamps have to be drained. The ground in such areas can also be unstable.
  • Geological occurrence of mineral resources can be a problem. Minerals occurring in folded and faulted structure are expensive and difficult to extract.
  • Where mineral ores occurs below the water table, a lot of money is spent on pumping the water.

Human factors include:

  • Shortage of capital and fluctuating demand.
  • Outdated technology.
  • Political instability/internal civil strife.
  • Shortage of skilled labour.
  • Pressure from environmental groups
  • The perception of what constitutes a resources.

To access more topics go to the O Level Geography Notes page