A Sudanese refugee. Image credit aljezeera.net

ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes:Refugees: Possible solutions to the refugee problem

  • These include both long term and short term solutions for the host countries.


  • This is the return of refugees to their source country when the source of danger has been removed
  • This is very expensive in that they have to be transported, basic shelter provided, arrangements for sanitation etc

Resettlement and training

  • Refugees are given pieces of land to farm and are made productive in any other possible way in the host country.
  • They are trained in such skills that will make them contribute to the economy of the host country.
  • An example is the refugee camp at Mazowe River Bridge and Tongogara in Zimbabwe were Mozambican refugees were trained.
  • Services such as schools, clinics and water were provided and presently Tongogara camp serves as a training centre for refugees from as far away as Rwanda.


  • This is when refugees are granted citizenship.
  • This is only practical when the refugees are very few.

Good governance

  • This is a long term and positive solution to the refugee problem.
  • This includes:
  • The respect for human rights
  • Management and resolution of conflicts be they intra or inter-party or ethnic.
  • Establishing, maintain a respecting democratic government systems and power sharing by all groups of citizens.
  • It is hoped that this will make every country peaceful to stay in, make it productive and hence avoid food shortages.

To access more topics go to the O Level Geography Notes page