Nyakasikana the last known medium of Nehanda.

ZIMSEC O Level History Notes: The Mutapa Kingdom: A list of known Mhondoros/Svikiros in the Mutapa Kingdom

  • Mhondoros were the national spirit mediums/ancestral spirits in the Mutapa state
  • They were usually made up of royal ancestral spirits
  • The word svikiro comes from a Shona verb (infinitive) kusvika which means ‘to arrive [at a place]’
  • It was used to refer to the spirit mediums upon which the spirits of departed ancestors would come upon
  • The word mhondoro is also used to refer to the spirit mediums who were possed by these spirits
  • Some of the mhondoro’s of the Mutapa kingdom include:
    1. Matope
    2. Samarengu
    3. Nemangoro
    4. Nyanhewe
    5. Nebedza
    6. Nehanda
  • Go to the page about the Religious Organisation of the Mutapa state to know more about Svikiros and Mhondoro as well as other aspects of the Mutapa Kingdom religious beliefs

To access more topics go to the History Notes page.