Zimbabweans caught attempting to cross into South Africa. Image credit photoshelter.com

ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes: Migration: International Migrations

  • This is where people leave their home countries or continents and migrate to other countries.
  • Examples are whereby people migrate from Mozambique into Zimbabwe and from Zimbabwe to Botswana and South Africa.
  • People move to other countries for several reasons, which include:
  • Seeking better working conditions for examples teachers, nurses and doctors from Zimbabwe
  • Seeking employment for example from southern Africa to mines in South Africa
  • Lower taxation rates for example in Botswana
  • Setting up business in areas of cheap labour for example industrialists in Europe and America coming to Africa
  • Pushed by hunger and wars or religious persecution
  • Shopping for better and cheaper commodities.
  • The usual pull and push factors shown in the table below:
Push FactorsPull Factors
WarPeace and political stability
Lack of servicesBetter services/Availability of services e.g electricity
Susceptible to natural disasters e.g. floodsNot susceptible to natural disasters
Lack of safetyGuarantee of safety
High CrimeLow crime
DroughtAdequate rain
PovertyEconomic opportunities
Barren/Unproductive landFertile land
Hostile/Arid climateHabitable/Auspicious environment
Less wealthMore wealth

To access more topics go to the O Level Geography Notes page