Hoyt's sector model. Image credit MediaWiki

Hoyt’s sector model. Image credit MediaWiki

ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes: Settlements: Hoyt’s Sector model (1939)


  • In making the model Hoyt made some assumptions
  • The model assumes wealthy people who can afford the highest rentals and rates chose the best sites.
  • Wealthy residents can afford private cars or transportation thus they live further from industry and near main roads.
  • Similar land uses attract each other and repel other land uses.
  • This process is referred to as sector development
  • The city or town as a single CBD or core.
  • People need to move from one area of the town to another.

The model

  • According to Hoyt areas alongside main roads/communication lines attract the highest rent and rates.
  • The city grows in a series of wedges
  • Land use follows transport routes from the CBD.
  • Once a certain area has developed a distinctive land use or function it tends to retain that land use as the city grows outwards
  • Hoyt also identifies different residential zones in relation to income, opportunity and class.
  • Sectors thus replace the rings in Burgess and Park’s model.
  • This is because of unequal access as the city grows outwards along major routes.
  • Major routes attract manufacturing.
  • Next to the industrial zone are low class worker’s houses for example Mbare and Leighton industries, Willowvale and Highfields and Mbare and Graniteside.
  • These houses are followed by middle class houses ( Waterfalls next to Mbare) and then high income houses.

To access more topics go to the O Level Geography Notes page