ZIMSEC O Level History Notes: Colonisation of Zimbabwe: Shona Uprisings
- It surprised the settlers because they thought the Shona had welcomed colonialism as it protected them from raids by the Ndebele
- The Shona were also seen as weak, disunited and having no organized society
- The Shona had laid foundation for an uprising secretly
- The Shona had to harvest the fields before joining the war
- The First Chimurenga began at the court of Chief Makoni in Manicaland
- The settlers wanted to punish him and sent a force and the chief lighted fires as a way of communicating the beginning of Chimurenga
- The war was organized in a similar way as that of the Ndebele
- Religious leader worked with paramount chiefs
- Some of the religious leaders was Mkwati
- He lived at Mashayamombe’s kraal which later became the centre of rebellion in Mashonland west
- The Mashayamombe revolted first in Beatrice
- The incident of the beating of Muzhuzha, Mashayamombe’s nephew and confiscation of their rifles by the Native Commissioner Moony sparked the war
- Moony was then killed by Mashayamombe’s men led by Chifamba
- Mashayamombe’s men also killed Indian traders
- Mbuya Nehanda and Sekuru Kaguvi also played pivotal roles in co-coordinating and unifying people.
- Kaguvi worked wih chiefs such as Chikwaka, Chinamhora, Zvimba, Nyandoro, Mangwende, Seke and Rusike among others
- Nehanda worked with Hwata, Negomo, Nyamweda, Chiweshe, Nyachuru among others
- The Shona were divided into many chieftainships
- This led to the fighting being organized at local level
- The Shona used guerrilla warfare whereby men would unite and fight then go back to their normal lives after they had hid their weapons
- Many British forces were killed by using this method
- The settlers fled and settled in laagers waiting for reinforcements
- When reinforcement arrived, things changed, the settlers attacked and defeated the Shona at Mashayamombe.
- They killed some of the spirit mediums, Bonda and Chifamba
- The other paramount chiefs were attacked one by one
- Other spirit mediums were also tracked down and killed: Kaguvi in October 1897 and Nehanda in December
- They were convicted with murder and were hanged on 27 April 1898
- Chief Mapondera became the centre of colonial resistance from 1900 – 1903
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