European powers and their colonies

ZIMSEC O Level History Notes: Scramble and Partition of Africa: European powers and their African colonies

  • Britain had the most coonies in Africa.
  • Some African countries that were not colonised by the European powers
  • These are Liberia which was a protectorate of USA and
  • Ethiopia which managed to resist Italian control after the Battle of Adwa which led to the signing of the treaty of Addis Ababa
  • The rest were colonised by various European powers
European powerAfrican colonies
Britain1. Egypt
2. Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
3. Kenya Colony
4. Uganda Protectorate
5. Tanzania
6. Zanzibar
7. British Mauritius
8. Bechuanaland (now Botswana)
9. Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe)
10. Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia)
11. British Seychelles
12. British South Africa
South Africa:Transvaal Colony, Cape Colony, Colony of Natal and Orange River Colony
13. South-West Africa ( now Namibia)
14. Gambia Colony and Protectorate
15. Sierra Leone
16. Nigeria
17. British Togoland (today part of Ghana)
18. Cameroons (now parts of Cameroon and Nigeria)
19. Gold Coast (British colony) (now Ghana)
20. Nyasaland (now Malawi)
22. Basutoland (now Lesotho)
23. Swaziland
France1. Mauritania
2. Senegal
3. Albreda (now part of Gambia)
4. French Sudan (now Mali)
5. French Guinea (now Guinea)
6. Ivory Coast
7. Niger
8. French Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso)
9. French Dahomey (now Benin)
10. French Togoland (now Togo)
11. Gabon
12. French Cameroun
13. French Congo (now Republic of the Congo)
14. Oubangui-Chari (now Central African Republic)
15. Chad
16. French Algeria
17.French Protectorate of Tunisia
18. French Morocco
19. Egypt (ownership (Condominium of France and the United Kingdom)
20. French Madagascar
21. Comoros
22. Scattered islands in the Indian Ocean
23. French Somaliland (now Djibouti)
24. Isle de Franc (now Mauritius
Portugal1. Portuguese West Africa (now Angola)
Mainland Angola
Portuguese Congo
2. Portuguese East Africa (now Mozambique)
3. Portuguese Guinea(now Guinea-Bissau)
4. Portuguese Cape Verde
5. Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe (now Ouidah, in Benin)

Spain1. Spanish North Africa now Northern Morocco
2. Spanish West Africa now
Southern Morocco
3. Spanish Sahara
(now Western Sahara)
4. Spanish Guinea
(now Equatorial Guinea)
1. German Kamerun (now Cameroon and part of Nigeria)
2. German East Africa (now Rwanda, Burundi and most of Tanzania)
3. German South-West Africa (now Namibia)
4. German Togoland (now Togo and eastern part of Ghana)
Italy1. Italian Libya
2. Italian Eritrea
3. Italian Somaliland
Belgium1. Congo Free State and Belgian Congo (today's Democratic Republic of the Congo)
2. Ruanda-Urundi (comprising modern Rwanda and Burundi)

NB When Germany lost the Word War I the Allied powers divvied up her colonies among themselves.

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