Robert Mugabe and Joshua Nkomo

ZIMSEC O Level History Notes: The Struggle for Independence in Colonial Zimbabwe 1900-1980: Chimurenga II/ Umvukela II


  • This topic seeks to evaluate early protest movements in Southern Rhodesia
  • It enumerates the list of grievances that Africans had against colonial rule
  • The social and economic lives of Africans under colonial rule
  • It also discusses the pressures (social and economic) that precipitated the second Chimurenga
  • Human rights issues before 1980
  • It also seeks to evaluate the African nationalists activities and why the abandoned peaceful protests
  • Discuss the events of the guerilla warfare and how it affected the African peasants and whites

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