Fishing in an aquaculture pond. Image credit

ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes: Natural Resources: Fishing:Advantages and disadvantages of aquaculture

  • the rearing of aquatic animals or the cultivation of aquatic plants for food
  • It is practiced in ponds, rivers, dams, lakes or even oceans
  • It is also known as aquafarming
  • The rearing is carried out under controlled conditions
  • An example is the rearing of trout fish at Claremont Estates in Nyanga Zimbabwe


  • The development of the tourist industry such as trout fishing in the Eastern Highlands of Zimbabwe.
  • Reduction of diseases like malaria and bilharzia as some fish species feed on mosquito larvae or bilharzia carrying snails.
  • Provision of cheap protein for local population.
  • Provision of a source of income when producers sell the fish to local markets.
  • Allows for the recycling of waste for example chicken droppings used as fish food.
  • Can create jobs in community.
  • Can increase revenue on city, state and national level
  • Can reduce seafood trade deficit.
  • Can encourage local investment.
  • Can increase scientific knowledge and technology.
  • Can place more emphasis on protecting coastal waters from pollution, especially in the case of mollusk and seaweed culture.
  • May reduce fishing pressure on certain wild stocks if that species can be produced through aquaculture rather than fished.


  • Can conflict with other users of water bodies such as lobstermen, fishermen or
    migrating fish.
  • Can put excess pressure on wild stocks that are used to create high protein feed
  • Can amplify and transfer disease and parasites to wild fish populations.
  • Can pollute water systems with excess nutrients (fish feed & wastes), chemicals
    and antibiotics.
  • Can compromise native gene pools if farmed fish and native species interbreed.
  • Can threaten livelihood of fishermen.
  • Can be an unpredictable enterprise for small local communities due to its susceptibility to severe weather, predators, disease, and global competition.

To access more topics go to the O Level Geography Notes page