ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes:Agriculture: Introduction
- Agriculture is a primary activity in which man extracts food and industrial raw materials from nature on a production unit known as a farm.
- As a result, this industry or activity is called farming.
- It involves the production of food crops in the form of cereals such as maize, wheat, rice, millet and sorghum.
- Food stuffs like vegetables and beverages like tea, coffee, cocoa, as well as root crops like sugarbeet, cassava or yams are grown.
- Animal husbandry, which is the parallel rearing of livestock, is also undertaken for both food and raw material provision.
- The level at which agriculture is undertaken depends on the following:
- Size of the farm
- The level of technological advancement
- Production objectives (transforming raw material into finished product with the help of energy, capital, manpower and machinery).
- Economic history
- Capabilities of the farmer
- All this has led to various types of farming developing, ranging from subsistence farming through small mixed farming to commercial farming.
- Specialised types of farming have also come up in the form of market gardening, horticulture, irrigation, plantations and dairying.
- These share one common goal which is to increase food supply and raw materials to the ever-increasing world population.
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