Combined Science: Similarities and Differences between Plant and Animal Cells
- We have already looked at the structure of both animal cells and plant cells
- From the diagram below you can tell that there are differences and similarities between animal and plant cells
- Both plant and animal cells are eukaryotic, which means they have a well-defined nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.
- Both have a plasma membrane that surrounds the cell and regulates the movement of substances in and out of the cell.
- Both have cytoplasm, which is the gel-like substance within the cell that contains organelles.
- Both have mitochondria, which are organelles responsible for cellular respiration and energy production.
- Both have ribosomes, which are responsible for protein synthesis.
- Plant cells have a cell wall composed of cellulose, while animal cells do not have a cell wall.
- Plant cells have chloroplasts, which are organelles that contain chlorophyll and are responsible for photosynthesis. Animal cells do not have chloroplasts.
- Plant cells have a large central vacuole that occupies a significant portion of the cell volume, while animal cells have small and numerous vacuoles.
- Plant cells have a rectangular or box-like shape, while animal cells have a more round or irregular shape.
- Plant cells have plasmodesmata, which are channels that allow the exchange of materials between adjacent plant cells. Animal cells do not have plasmodesmata.
- Plant cells do not have lysosomes, while animal cells have lysosomes that contain enzymes for intracellular digestion.
- Plant cells do not have centrioles, which are organelles responsible for cell division in animal cells.
- Plant cells can store starch, while animal cells can store glycogen.
- Plant cells have larger and more numerous chloroplasts in leaves than in other plant tissues, while animal cells do not have chloroplasts in any of their tissues.
- Plant cells have a rigid cell wall that provides support and protection, while animal cells do not have a cell wall but have an extracellular matrix that provides support and protection.
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