• Break-even analysis is a powerful tool that helps a business determine the minimum amount of sales it needs to achieve to cover its costs.
• It allows a business to determine at what point it will start making a profit and is critical in determining pricing and sales strategies.
• Break-even analysis involves analyzing the relationship between fixed costs, variable costs, selling price, and the total revenue generated by a business.
• By analyzing this relationship, a business can determine its break-even point, which is the point where its total revenue equals its total cost.

#### Numerical Example:

Let’s consider a scenario where a business sells widgets for $10 each. The fixed costs associated with producing the widgets are$1,000, while the variable costs are $6 per widget. To calculate the break-even point, we need to use the following formula: $\text{Break-even point (in units)} = \frac{\text{Fixed costs}}{\text{Contribution margin per unit}}$ Using the formula above, we can calculate the break-even point as follows: Break-even point =$1,000 / ($10 –$6) Break-even point = 250 widgets

Other formulae you will find useful in Break Even Analsis

$\text{Break-even point (in dollars)} = \text{Break-even point (in units)} \times \text{Selling price per unit}$ $\text{Contribution} = \text{Selling price per unit} – \text{Variable cost per unit}$ $\text{Contribution per unit} = \frac{\text{Contribution}}{\text{Selling price per unit}}$ $\text{Total revenue} = \text{Selling price per unit} \times \text{Number of units sold}$

#### Break Even Terms:

• Fixed Costs: Costs that remain constant regardless of the level of output
• Variable Costs: Costs that vary with the level of output
• Total Costs: The sum of fixed and variable costs
• Selling Price: The price at which a product is sold
• Total Revenue: The total amount of money earned from selling a product
• Contribution Margin: The amount of money available to cover fixed costs and generate a profit
• Break Even Point: The point at which total revenue equals total costs i.e the point where neither profit nor loss is made
• Profit: The amount of money earned once total revenue exceeds total costs

#### Benefits of Break-Even Analysis:

• Helps businesses determine the minimum amount of sales needed to cover costs
• Allows businesses to analyze the impact of changes in fixed costs, variable costs, and selling price on profits
• Enables businesses to determine the level of sales required to achieve a specific profit target
• Helps businesses set prices that will enable them to cover costs and generate a profit
• Can be used to compare the profitability of different products or services

#### Limitations and Drawbacks of Break-Even Analysis:

• Assumes that all products or services are sold at the same price
• Assumes that fixed costs remain constant regardless of the level of output
• Does not take into account changes in demand or competition
• Ignores the time value of money
• Assumes that all costs can be classified as either fixed or variable, which may not be the case in reality.