ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes: Natural Resources: Fishing:Sea fishing methods
- The types of fishing methods employed in sea fishing are determined by the type of fish being exploited.
- There are two main types of fish found in the oceans of Southern Africa, namely pelagic or surface fishes and deep-sea fishes.
- There is also a third small group of sea-bed fishes.
- This is for fishes that swim on the surface of the sea.
- They are usually small.
- They are found less than 50 m below the surface and swim in large schools called shoals.
- Examples of such fish include sardines and anchovies.
- They feed on small plants and micro-organisms.
- Fishers use floating gill or drift net as well as seine nets, which can float on the surface.
- These have floats on one side and sinkers on the other side.
- Small sine boats are used.
- The pelagic fisheries are fairly close to the coast.
- The fish are caught in large numbers hence they are quickly over-exploited.
Deep sea fishing
- Deep sea fishing is carried out for fish species found below 50 metres just above the sea bed.
- These are usually large fish which feed on other sea organisms and small fish.
- Common species are the hake and mackerel.
- Fisheries usually use trawl nets and bigger trawl boats.
Sea bed fishing
- Sea bed species include rock lobsters, crabs and prawns.
- These are normally exploited using scooping or sea bed trawling.
- Destructive methods like dynamite fishing are sometimes used to get the sea bed species out of the coastal reefs.
- This involves blasting sea rock with dynamite to expose the lobsters and crabs.
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