The basic structure of a flower

The basic structure of a flower: showing the reproductive organs

ZIMSEC O Level Combined Science Notes: Reproduction in plants: Flowers and Pollination

  • Most plants have female and male sex cells which join at fertilization to produce seeds
  • This is known as sexual reproduction
  • Flowers are the reproductive organs of plants
  • The structure of flowers has adapted to increase the chances of fertilisation
  • Although there are different kinds of flowers most have similar structures
  • Just as in animals the male sex cells must reach the female sex cells for fertilisation to begin and reproduction to occur
  • The male sex cells are in the form of pollen
  • The pollen are carried from the anthers of a flower to the stigmas of other flowers of the same type.
  • The process by which the pollen is transferred is called pollination
  • In most plants pollination is carried out by insects such as bees or by the wind
  • Insects pollinated flowers have special characteristics that make them attractive to insects
  • Otherwise the plants would die out and become extinct if pollination failed
  • Wind pollinated flowers are very small with no petals
  • Both the male and female organs are exposed so that they can release and collect pollen from the air easily

To access more topics go to the Combined Science Notes page.