ZIMSEC History O Level Notes: The Great Zimbabwe State: Reasons for the Fall of the Great Zimbabwe State
There are several reasons why the Great Zimbabwe State/Kingdom fell viz:
- Civil wars
- The rise of ambitious leaders who oppressed the people and declared war on each other
- Succession disputes which often led to civil wars and factionalism.
- The decline in trade
- Shortage of salt
- Overpopulation which led to shortages of resources such as pastures and arable land for farming.
- Exhaustion of minerals
- Refusal to pay tribute by vassal chiefs.
- Persistent droughts.
- The spread of deadly epidemics.
- Diseases such as cholera and smallpox that ravaged the closely populated people.
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