The Oriana a cruise ship from Germany. Image credit

The Oriana a cruise ship from Germany. Image credit

ZIMSEC O Level Commerce Notes: Transport: Modes of transport: Sea

Sea Transport.


  • Is cheap.
  • Suitable for:
  • bulky cargo e.g. crude oil.
  • Heavy goods e.g. mineral ores.
  • Mixed cargo i.e. different goods.
  • Different types and sizes of ships are available.
  • Special vessels for special cargo ie. Refrigerated ships and tankers.
  • They carry containers.
  • Can be re-routed easily.
  • There is no need to construct a route.


  • Are a slow mode of transport.
  • The use of cranes and fork-lifts results in:
  • high cost of loading and unloading.
  • Unemployment as less stevedores are engaged.
  • There is need for special packaging as goods can deteriorate if exposed to the salty water of the sea.
  • Harbours, docks, quays and ports are expensive to construct.
  • Various levies are charged e.g. wharfage, dock,warehousing and harbour costs.

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