A container ship. Image credit MediaWiki

ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes: Transport:Modern Developments in Transport: Sea transport

  • Sea transport development has involved the modernization of old ports through deepening of harbours, building wharfs and quays and installing new port handling facilities to increase capacity and efficiency.
  • For example in Mozambique, the Beira and Maputo ports are being modernized.
  • New ports have been built with new excellent handling facilities.
  • These include Tema in Ghana.
  • There is also use of containers in ships as on roads.
  • Since ports are break-of-bulk points of transport for cargo and passengers, a faster method of transferring cargo and passengers from water to land-based transport has been developed.
  • This is called the roll-on, roll-off system or ro-ro in short where for example, cars being exported are rolled onto ships, sailed across oceans and then rolled off at the destinations.
  • Huge entrepots have been built to ease congestion on older established ports.
  • Examples include Europoort, the entrepot for Europe’s port Rotterdam in Netherlands.
  • For passengers’ ocean liners, bigger, more comfortable vessels have been built at ship yards with state-of-the-art bedrooms, relaxation decks and buffet rooms.
  • Safety has been improved through use of radar and early warning signs.
  • Navigation has been improved greatly through the use of Global Positioning Satellites (GPS)
  • The use of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) as fuel which is cleaner and more efficient
  • Hull paint technologies to reduce fuel consumption
  • Specialised ships are also making a comeback
  • Green technologies that do not harm the environment

To access more topics go to the O Level Geography Notes page

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