Mzilikazi Khumalo King of the Ndebele. Image credit

Mzilikazi Khumalo King of the Ndebele. Image credit

ZIMSEC O Level History Notes:The Ndebele:Methods used by Mzilikazi to establish the Ndebele State

Mzilikazi and the Ndebele used the following methods to co-opt other tribes and form the Ndebele state North of the Limpopo river:

  • They demanded tribute from the local tribes.
  • They entered into trade relations with the local tribes.
  • They Attacked, defeated and absorbed the Rozvi.
  • They raided their cattle and crops.
  • They forbade the Europeans from selling guns and ammunition to the Shona.
  • They captured and killed Shona leaders.
  • The people were forced to speak the Ndebele language.
  • Young Shona men were conscripted into the Ndebele armies.
  • Ndebele governors were sent to control the people living in tributary areas.

To access more topics go to the History Notes page.

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