### ZIMSEC O Level Combined Science Notes: Machines: The inclined plane

• Is also known as a ramp
• is a flat supporting surface tilted at an angle,
• with one end higher than the other,
• used as an aid for raising or lowering a load
• Inclined planes are widely used to move heavy loads over vertical obstacles
• examples vary from a ramp used to load goods into a truck,
• to a person walking up a flight of stairs
• Moving an object up an inclined plane requires less force than lifting it straight up
• at a cost of an increase in the distance moved i.e.
• The load has to through an increased distance than would otherwise would
• have moved vertically
• As a result the load moves a greater distance
[/fusion_builder_column] A flight of stairs is an example of an inclined plane

• In an inclined plane the mechanical advantage is obtained using the formula:
• $\text{MA= }\dfrac{W}{F}$
• Where W is weight and F is force and MA stands for mechanical advantage
• These are shown on the diagram above
• Velocity ratio is obtained using the formula:
• $\text{VR= }\dfrac{d}{h}$
• Where h is the vertical distance of the inclined plane and
• d is the distance moved by the load
• θ is the angle of the plane
• The smaller the angle of the inclined plane the smaller the effort required to move the load
• The larger the distance the load must move

To access more topics go to the Combined Science Notes page

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