ZIMSEC O Level Business Studies Notes: Production: Flow Production/Line Production

  • This is also known as assembly line or continuous production
  • It is a method used to manufacture, produce, or process materials without interruption to produce products
  • It involves repetitive manufacturing processes in which each product passes through the same sequence of operations,
  • and the machines and other equipment are laid-out in the order they are used
  • In line production the whole process is dedicated to the needs of a single or small group of products
  • and (unlike in batch production) the process does not have to be stopped and restarted for reconfigured for each new product that is being made
  • Standardized products are made in large numbers
  • This is also known as mass production
  • Examples of items produced this way include cars, computers etc

Advantages of flow production

  • Standardised goods are produced
  • Allow the business to take advantages of economies of scale e.g. bulk purchase of raw materials
  • There is minimal idle time
  • Allows the business to meet large demand
  • Allows the business to take advantage of automation of routine tasks
  • Allows the business to implement division of labour
  • Is not labour intensive and most of the labour is semi-skilled
  • Low cost of production per each unit


  • Is capital intensive which requires high initial capital outlay i.e. expensive equipment has to be bought
  • Can lead to worker demotivation and workplace alienation as workers perform repetitive dull tasks
  • Not very flexible as the production equipment and set up is dedicated to a narrow range of products
  • If one part/step breaks down it can lead to an entire disruption of the production process
  • No/Very little room for customisation

To access more topics go to the O Level Business Notes

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