Interpersonal communication. Image credit

ZIMSEC O Level Business Studies Notes: Leadership:One to one (interpersonal communication)

  • It is the exchange of information and ideas between two people
  • It involves face to face communication, verbal/spoken communication and non-verbal communication in form of gestures
  • It is the most frequently used form of communication when communicating with others
  • It takes place in real time


  • It takes place in real time
  • Feedback is instantaneous
  • Can take advantage of non-verbal cues such as facial expressions and gestures
  • The message can be explained if the receiver has not understood it
  • It is personal and intimate
  • Confidential
  • Is direct
  • The message can be adapted to suit the audience
  • Is not affected by literacy


  • Usually spoken so there is no record of the communication ( recording devices can be used to counter this)
  • Is limited by distance (new technologies ┬ásuch as Skype and Whatsapp allow video face to face communication)
  • Poor message retention as the listener may forget the message
  • Not suitable for large audiences
  • Low legal reference value for example if contradicted by written communication
  • Does not give the listener time to come up with appropriate feedback for example where the message is complex and has to be digested

To access more topics go to the O Level Business Notes page