ZIMSEC O Level Commerce Notes: Management Functions: Controlling

  • In our introduction to management, we defined what management is
  • In simple terms, management is the art of doing work through others
  • However, management can also be defined in terms of its functions
  • These functions are the duties that a typical manager is expected to perform regardless of their field or the business in question
  • There are five functions of management namely:
    • Planning
    • Organising
    • Coordinating
    • Leading
    • Controlling
  • In this section, we will look at controlling
  • Controlling is the management function that is concerned with monitoring how activities are carried out and keeping the organisation on track to achieve set plans
  • It involves:
    1. establishing performance standards that must be adhered to
    2. Comparing actual performance to set standards and if there is any deviation
    3. Take corrective action
  • It is important to point out at this stage that controlling is not necessarily the last step in the management process
  • Rather controlling can be carried out at any stage
  • For example, last years business performance can be used to create more realistic plans
  • In this case, management uses the previous year’s experience to take corrective action to the planning process
  • In this way controlling can be used to inform on the best way to carry out leading, organising and coordinating processes

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