ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes: Exploitation of Natural Resources: Case Study:Oil in Nigeria
- Nigeria is the largest producer of oil in Africa. This sweet oil is similar in composition to petroleum extracted from the North Sea.
- There are six petroleum exportation terminals in the country. Shell owns two, while Mobil, Chevron, Texaco, and Agip own one each.
- As of 2014, Nigeria’s petroleum industry contributes about 14% to its economy.
Geological occurrence of oil and extraction method
- Oil occurs in the pores of sedimentary rocks.
- It normally occurs in dome-shaped anticlines between layers of non-porous rocks.
- The oil is usually trapped in the crest of the anticline with gas above and water below.
- Oil bearing rocks may be affected by faulting and occurrence of volcanoes.
- Before the oil can be extracted, a detailed survey of the geological structure of the area is carried out.
- This is followed by the drilling of oil wells and construction of derricks.
- When the drill reaches the oil underground it comes out through the well.
- When the oil ceases to flow naturally it is pumped to the surface.
- This is usually done by pumping water into the well which forces the oil up as it is less dense.
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