A list of the Rulers of Mutapa state- Updated 2023
A stamp showing a Portoguese impression of the Mutapa Gatsi Rusere. Notice the decidedly European features. Image credit stampdata.com
ZIMSEC History O Level Notes: Mutapa State: A List of the rulers of Mutapa State
These are the rulers of the Mutapa State as told by the early Portoguese records as well as according to Oral Tradition:
It is possible some of these are nicknames made up after the rulers had died in a bid to summarise their history and reigns.
It is also possible that some of the rulers above might have been duplicated owing to their being known by two different names as it is also possible that some less noteworthy rulers might have been omitted from the list altogether as Oral tradition is subject to the fallibilities of memory.