July 2018

Cambrige Notes: Private Limited Companies

By |2022-09-15T12:30:52+02:00July 25th, 2018|Cambridge O Level/ IGSCE Accounts Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

ZIMSEC O Level Commerce Notes: Business Organisations: Private Limited Companies

  • Its operations are governed by the Companies Act.
  • Formed by 2-50 shareholders.
  • In other countries a company is formed by 2 or more people with no maximum number of shareholders.
  • Has a lot of legal formalities including:
  • It has to create an Articles of Association, Memorandum of Association and […]

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Cambrige Notes: Public Limited Companies

By |2022-09-15T12:30:52+02:00July 25th, 2018|Cambridge O Level/ IGSCE Accounts Notes, Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

ZIMSEC O Level Commerce Notes: Business Organisations: Public Limited Companies

Formation

  • Membership is open to the public.
  • Membership is by invitation through a prospectus.
  • Formed by at least two shareholders and there is no upper limit.
  • Governed by the Companies Act.
  • The founding members have to draw up a prospectus, articles and memorandum of association and a statutory declaration and […]

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Cambrige Notes: Differences between shares and debentures

By |2022-09-15T12:30:52+02:00July 25th, 2018|Cambridge O Level/ IGSCE Accounts Notes, Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

ZIMSEC O Level Commerce Notes: Differences between shares and debentures

To access more topics go to the Commerce Notes page.


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Cambrige Notes: Differences between Ordinary and Preference Shares

By |2022-09-15T12:30:53+02:00July 25th, 2018|Cambridge O Level/ IGSCE Accounts Notes, Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

ZIMSEC O Level Commerce Notes: Differences between Ordinary and Preference Shares

To access more topics go to the Cambridge IGCSE Accounting(0452)/O Level Principles of Accounts(7110) Notes.


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August 2015

Terms used in business organisations

By |2022-09-15T12:42:03+02:00August 7th, 2015|Notes, O Level Commerce Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

Image credit tooopen.com

Image credit tooopen.com ZIMSEC O Level Commerce Notes: Terms used in business organisations

Private”

  • Membership to a private limited company is by invitation.
  • Shares of a private limited company are onlys sold to invited members for example friends and relatives.
  • Shares cannot be sold or bought on the Zimbabwe Stock Exchange […]

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Certificate of incorporation,Statutory declaration and Certificate of Trading

By |2022-09-15T12:42:04+02:00August 4th, 2015|Notes, O Level Commerce Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

Certificate of incorporation. Image credit elevator-escalator.com

Certificate of incorporation. Image credit elevator-escalator.com

ZIMSEC O Level Commerce Notes:Certificate of incorporation,Statutory declaration and Certificate of Trading

Certificate of incorporation

  • Is prepared by the Registrar of companies.
  • Is sent to a company which applied for registration.
  • Contains:
  • the date and place where the company was registered.
  • The […]

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Articles of Association

By |2022-09-15T12:42:05+02:00August 4th, 2015|Notes, O Level Commerce Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

Articles of Association Sample. Image credit agreements.org

Articles of Association Sample. Image credit agreements.org ZIMSEC O Level Commerce Notes: Articles of Association

Articles of Association

  • Is prepared by the founders of the company or their representatives.
  • Is sent to the Registrar of companies, together with the memorandum of association for approval.
  • Contains the rules and […]

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Memorandum of Association

By |2022-09-15T12:42:05+02:00August 4th, 2015|Notes, O Level Commerce Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

A page from a Memorandum of Association. Image credit coronetpublications.com

A page from a Memorandum of Association. Image credit coronetpublications.com ZIMSEC O Level Commerce Notes: Memorandum of Association

Memorandum of Association

  • Is used in the formation of private and public limited companies.
  • Is prepared by the company founders/their representatives.
  • Is sent to the Registrar […]

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Prospectus

By |2022-09-15T12:42:06+02:00August 4th, 2015|Notes, O Level Commerce Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

Prospectus. Image credit docstoc.com

Prospectus. Image credit docstoc.com ZIMSEC O Level Commerce Notes: Prospectus(privatised)

 

Prospectus

  • Is prepared by founders of the company or an issuing house after the registration of a public limited company.
  • Is sent for approval to the registrar of companies before members of the public are invited to subscribe for […]

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Reasons why Parastatals are turned into Public Limited companies (privatised)

By |2022-09-15T12:42:06+02:00August 4th, 2015|Notes, O Level Commerce Notes, Ordinary Level Notes|

Dairibord Milk. Image credit herald.co.zw

Dairibord Milk. Image credit herald.co.zw ZIMSEC O Level Commerce Notes: Reasons why Parastatals are turned into Public Limited companies (privatised)

Reasons why parastatals are converted into public limited companies.

  • To reduce the burden on the taxpayer for example parastatals are often subsidised using tax-payer’s money.
  • To improve efficiency of […]

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